본 연구의 목적은 한국과 미국의 기록관리학 교과과정을 비교하여 봄으로써 교과과정의 특성과 변화, 기록관리학과 문헌정보학의 관련성, 기록관리학의 각 지식범주별 교과목의 수와 분포를 분석하고 앞으로 기록관리 교과과정의 개편 방향을 설정하고자 하였다. 미국의 기록관리학과 비교하여 한국의 기록관리학은 지식범주별 공통필수 교과목이나 선수 과목 설정을 통해 보다 체계적이고 기록관리의 탄탄한 토대를 만들어줄 필요가 있다. 그리고 디지털기술의 발전과 함께 통합된 환경 안에서 정보 기술을 활용하는 방법과 비판적 사고 능력 개발에 중점을 둔 교과과정의 강화로 기록관리의 효율성을 높여야한다. 또한 체계적인 실습과 인턴쉽의 제공, 세미나와 특강, 논문 작성을 통한 연구 능력의 강화가 복잡해지는 기록관리 업무에서의 문제해결능력을 키우게 할 것이다.
The purposes of this study are to compare and analyze archival curriculums in Korea and the United States in aspects of specializations, changes, relationships between archival science and library and information science, numbers of the courses and their proportions, and to suggest a future direction of the revised archival curriculum. Archival Science in Korea needs to prepare a more systematic and firm foundation by opening commonly required or prerequisite courses according to each component of the archival body of knowledge. Based upon the reinforcement of the methods of using information technology in integrated environment and development of critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of archival management should be approached in curriculum. And strengthening of research skill through providing of systematic practicum and internship, seminar, workshops and writing thesis will prepare problem solving skills in complicated archival work.
This study investigates the current preservation and management of four records and documentary heritage in Korea that is in the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. The study analyzes their problems and corresponding solutions in digitizing those world records heritages. This study also reviews additional four documentary books in Korea that are in the wish list to add to UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. This study is organized as the following: Chapter 2 examines the value and meanings of world records and documentary heritage in Korea. The registry requirements and procedures of UNESCO's Memory of the World Register are examined. The currently registered records of Korea include Hunmin-Chongum, the Annals of the Choson Dynasty, the Diaries of the Royal Secretariat (Seungjeongwon Ilgi), and Buljo- Jikji-Simche-Yojeol (vol. Ⅱ). These records heritage's worth and significance are carefully analyzed. For example, Hunmin-Chongum(「訓民正音」) is consisted of unique and systematic letters. Letters were delicately explained with examples in its original manual at the time of letter's creation, which is an unparalleled case in the world documentary history. The Annals of the Choson Dynasty(「朝鮮王朝實錄」) are the most comprehensive historic documents that contain the longest period of time in history. Their truthfulness and reliability in describing history give credits to the annals. The Royal Secretariat Diary (called Seungjeongwon-Ilgi(「承政院日記」)) is the most voluminous primary resources in history, superior to the Annals of Choson Dynasty and Twenty Five Histories in China. Jikji(「直指」) is the oldest existing book published by movable metal print sets in the world. It evidences the beginning of metal printing in the world printing history and is worthy of being as world heritage. The review of the four registered records confirms that they are valuable world documentary heritage that transfers culture of mankind to next generations and should be preserved carefully and safely without deterioration or loss. Chapter 3 investigates the current status of preservation and management of three repositories that store the four registered records in Korea. The repositories include Kyujanggak Archives in Seoul National University, Pusan Records and Information Center of National Records and Archives Service, and Gansong Art Museum. The quality of their preservation and management are excellent in all of three institutions by the following aspects: 1) detailed security measures are close to perfection 2) archiving practices are very careful by using a special stack room in steady temperature and humidity and depositing it in stack or archival box made of paulownia tree and 3) fire prevention, lighting, and fumigation are thoroughly prepared. Chapter 4 summarizes the status quo of digitization projects of records heritage in Korea. The most important issue related to digitization and database construction on Korean records heritage is likely to set up the standardization of digitization processes and facilities. It is urgently necessary to develop comprehensive standard systems for digitization. Two institutions are closely interested in these tasks: 1) the National Records and Archives Service experienced in developing government records management systems; and 2) the Cultural Heritage Administration interested in digitization of Korean old documents. In collaboration of these two institutions, a new standard system will be designed for digitizing records heritage on Korean Studies. Chapter 5 deals with additional Korean records heritage in the wish list for UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, including: 1) Wooden Printing Blocks(經板) of Koryo-Taejangkyong(高麗大藏經) in Haein Temple(海印寺); 2) Dongui-Bogam(「東醫寶鑑」) 3) Samguk-Yusa(「三國遺事」) and 4) Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong(「無垢淨光大다羅尼經」). Their world value and importance are examined as followings. Wooden Printing Blocks of Koryo-Taejangkyong in Haein Temple is the worldly oldest wooden printing block of cannon of Buddhism that still exist and was created over 750 years ago. It needs a special conservation treatment to disinfect germs residing in surface and inside of wooden plates. Otherwise, it may be damaged seriously. For its effective conservation and preservation, we hope that UNESCO and Government will schedule special care and budget and join the list of Memory of the Word Register. Dongui-Bogam is the most comprehensive and well-written medical book in the Korean history, summarizing all medical books in Korea and China from the Ancient Times through the early 17th century and concentrating on Korean herb medicine and prescriptions. It is proved as the best clinical guidebook in the 17th century for doctors and practitioners to easily use. The book was also published in China and Japan in the 18th century and greatly influenced the development of practical clinic and medical research in Asia at that time. This is why Dongui Bogam is in the wish list to register to the Memory of the World. Samguk-Yusa is evaluated as one of the most comprehensive history books and treasure sources in Korea, which illustrates foundations of Korean people and covers histories and cultures of ancient Korean peninsula and nearby countries. The book contains the oldest fixed form verse, called Hyang-Ka(鄕歌), and became the origin of Korean literature. In particular, the section of Gi-ee(紀異篇) describes the historical processes of dynasty transition from the first dynasty Gochosun(古朝鮮) to Goguryeo(高句麗) and illustrates the identity of Korean people from its historical origin. This book is worthy of adding to the Memory of the World Register. Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong is the oldest book printed by wooden type plates, and it is estimated to print in between 706 and 751. It contains several reasons and evidence to be worthy of adding to the list of the Memory of the World. It is the greatest documentary heritage that represents the first wooden printing book that still exists in the world as well as illustrates the history of wooden printing in Korea.
본 연구의 목적은 전자기록의 계층구조와 유형을 조사 분석하고, 전자기록의 각 계층 중 관리에 가장 기본이 되는 계층인 기록철(records folder)의 관리방안을 제시하는 것이다. 이를 위해 영국의 "전자기록관리시스템을 위한 기능요건"을 기준으로 전자기록의 계층모형 및 기록철 관리방안을 분석하였다. 또한 이 표준에서 제시한 전자기록의 계층구조를 가상의 사례에 적용해봄으로써 각 계층의 의미를 분명히 설명하고자 하였다. 이러한 선진사례 분석을 토대로, 우리나라 분류체계에서 전자기록철의 개념 도입 시 고려해야할 점, 전자기록철의 개시와 종결 기준 설정, 전자기록권(part) 개념의 도입 등을 중심으로 시사점을 정리하였다.
This study aims to analyze the structures of electronic records classification and suggest managing requirements for electronic folder as basic entity for ERM. This present study begins with analyzing the various types of electronic folders based on the Requirements for Electronic Records Management Systems: Functional Requirements of U.K. It designs some examples of classification structures for clarifying the meaning of the electronic folders, components and markers. Finally, it analyses some implications for korean environments including application of electronic folder concept, principles of folder open and closure, and introduction of electronic part entity for efficient folder management.
본 연구는 시민단체 기록의 분류방안을 마련해 보는 데에 연구의 목적을 두고, 환경운동연합을 사례로 환경연합기록의 분류체계 및 처리일정표 개발 과정을 제시해 보았다. 환경연합 기록의 분류원칙으로 기능분류에 주제분류를 결합한 형태의 분류원칙을 적용하였으며, 기능분류체계 개발을 위해 기록관리 업무분석 표준인 AS 5090와 DIRKS 방법론을 활용하였다. 연구 방법으로는 문헌연구, 자료조사, 인터뷰, 업무분석, 설문조사 등을 활용하였다.
This study aims to identify the developing process of classification shemes for NGO records. And it chooses the KFEM(Korea Federation for Environmental Movenment) for case study, which is a representative NGO of Korea. This study proposes the classification principles in the form that the function classification and subject classification are combined. The development model of function classification schemes on the KFEM records is based on the Australian Standard Work Process Analysis for Recordkeeping(AS 5090) and the DIRKS (Designing and Implementing Recordkeeping Systems) methodology. Literature review, interviews, work process analysis, and questionnaire surveys have been employed as research methodology.
정부기관 및 기업에서는 다양한 데이터세트가 생산된다. 업무활동의 일부로 생산되는 데이터세트는 현재 단순히 정보시스템 내에 저장되어 있고, 기록으로 획득되어 관리되고 있지 못하다. 원 데이터로서 업무활동에서 발생한 데이터세트 기록은, 시급히 기록관리 영역으로 편입되어 관리되지 않는다면, 오래지 않아 사장될 것이다. 데이터세트는 정부 정책 및 법제도 형성에 있어 기본 데이터로 활용 가능할 뿐 아니라 정책결정과정을 보여주는 증거로서 데이터세트 기록의 관리와 보존은 반드시 필요하다. 따라서 본 연구는 기록으로서의 데이터세트 관리 필요성을 지적하고 해외의 사례를 분석하여 데이터세트 기록관리의 기초 자료를 제공하고자 하였다.
The purpose of the study is to propose the necessity of management and long-term preservation of dataset as records. Although government and corporate bodies produce various dataset in the regular course of the business, dataset have been stored and managed in the information system. Dataset as records should be captured into the record management system and managed in the overall system. They can provide a evidence of the decision-making process of the government and fundamental information of the process. If agents do not perform the right management, dataset records will disappear in the future.
지난 몇 년 사이에 전자문화, 전자정부, 전자학습 및 전자 비즈니스의 디지털 아카이브즈들은 세계적으로 순조롭게 성장해 왔다. 우리가 이 아카이브즈들을 구축하고 관리하기 위해 상당한 시간과 노력을 투자해온 한편, 이 처리에 의해서 생산된 디지털 레코드들을, 미래의 기술로도 접근할 수 있게 하고, 사람들로 하여금 그것이 확실하고 신뢰할 수 있는 것인지 결정할 수 있게 하면서, 정보 기술의 여러 세대 전체에서 모두 이용할 수 있게 하는 능력은 갖지 못한다. 이것은 아직 솔루션이 개발되지 않은 심각한 문제이다. 이 논문은 디지털 아카이브즈와 보존이 성공하기 위한 실용적 기술에 대하여 논하고, 이 중요한 문제를 해결하기 위해 정보의 생명주기의 일반적 구조를 기술하여, 정량적 방법과 증진되는 방식으로 분석되고 평가될 수 있는, 디지털 레코드들을 보존하기 위한 타당한 방법을 발견할 수 있도록 한다.
The digital archives of E-culture, E-government, E-learning, and E-business have grown by leaps and bounds worldwide during the last several years. While we have invested significant time and effort to create and maintain those archives, we do not have the ability to make digital records generated by the processes all available across generations of information technology, making it accessible with future technology and enabling people to determine whether it is authentic and reliable. This is a very serious problem for which no solutions have been devised yet. This paper discusses practical technologies for digital archives and preservation to succeed, and describes a general framework of the life cycle of information to address this important problem so that we may find reasonable ways to preserve digital records that can be analyzed and evaluated in quantitative measures and incremental manners.
디지타이제이션은 문화유산기관의 소장품 보존에 탁월한 공헌을 해 왔으나, 디지타이제이션을 수행하는 상세한 세부기술전략을 표준화하여 지침으로 마련한 기관은 많지 않다. 본고는 디지타이제이션에서 중요한 두 단계인 이미지프로세스와 메타데이타기술(description)에 대한 실무가이드를 사례를 통해 설명한다. 그리고 디지타이제이션 프로젝트 진행에 관련된 중요한 쟁점들을 강조함으로 실무자들이 디지타이제이션을 실행하는데 필요한 전략을 제공한다.
Although digitization contributes to the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage resources, detailing the necessary techniques is a lack of standardization in existing digital repositories. The purpose of this paper is to present practical strategies to illustrate technical details of imaging processes and metadata description with examples. This paper also provides important management issues related to digitization management for project managers and practitioners.
China is a country with a long history. Chinese culture dates back thousands of years ago. Thousand years of history left the huge quantity of archival heritage, which consists of the memory of China. From tied knots, tortoise shell, bronze, bamboo to paper, film, CD, the mankind's history is kept and continued through the evolution of the documenting media and documenting methods. In the information era, when we are immersed in the sea of information technologies, archivists, as guards of human's memory, have to look for a balance point between new and old, between unchanged and changed. On one hand, archivists should try their best to protect traditional archives in a usable, authentic way in a long term; on the other hand, they must face the challenges posed by electronic record. The information age is a stage of the social development of mankind, the digitalization of archives is an important progress of human history. The report mainly is composed of three parts of the content: first, introduce the preserving situation of Chinese archival heritage；focus are put on "China archival heritage program" and the construction of "Special archives repository"; second, the process of digitalization of traditional archives; third, the framework of electronic record standard.
체코공화국 국립도서관은 1992년 유네스코의 제안을 받아들여, 소장품에서 가장 귀중한 자료들을 보여주기 위하여, 파일롯 CD-ROM 발행을 준비하기 시작했다. 1993년 4월에 발행된 이 CD는 세계 기록 문화유산 프로그램에 대한 대중적 관심을 불러일으키려는 목적을 갖는 일련의 유사한 유네스코 프로젝트들 가운데 하나였다. 1993년부터 1995년 사이에, 두 가지의 중세 문서를 전부 보여주는 두 개의 간행물들이 출간되었다. 이들은 모든 이미지 문서화와 원본문서의 다양한 특성에 대한 과학적 기술을 제공하였다. 체코 국립도서관의 디지털화센터는 Czech AIP Beroun Company와 협력하여 고문서와 고인쇄본을 전문적으로 처리하고 있다. 현재, 체코 국립도서관은 십여 개의 체코 및 여러 외국 기관들과 협력하고 있다. 두 개의 간행물은 디지털 도서관을 통해 이용할 수 있다.
The beginning of digitization activities in the National Library of the Czech Republic are interconnected with the first periods of existence of the UNESCO Memory of the World programme. It was in 1992 when the library accepted the UNESCO proposal to prepare a pilot CD-ROM publication for the programme showing the most precious items from its collections. In 1993 - 1995, the publication was followed by two another titles, which presented two medieval manuscripts in their entirety, providing both all the image documentation and scientific description of various features of the original documents. The digitization centre specialized in processing of old manuscripts and old printed books in co-operation with the Czech AIP Beroun Company. Nowadays, these two national programmes in which dozens of Czech and also several foreign institutions take part - are represented on their access side by two digital libraries: Manuscriptorium and Kramerius.
A large part of the vast amounts of information produced in the world is born digital, and comes in a wide variety of formats: text, database, audio, film, image. During the meeting of the Organization's Executive Board in May 2001, Member States agreed on the need for rapid action to safeguard digital heritage. The interest of UNESCO in this situation comes as no surprise. UNESCO exists in part to encourage and enable the preservation and enjoyment of the cultural, scientific and information heritage of the world's peoples. The growth of digital heritage and its vulnerability could hardly go unnoticed. Our societies have witnessed the end of the paradigm of the written archive, a paradigm that had developed over hundreds of years. Throughout the twentieth century new media have wisely and modestly joined this prestigious tradition. This paradigm has already been transformed, and the devices in place are unable to deal with the brutal advance of information technologies, and the quantitative inflation which they cause. This goes beyond those institutions specializing in the management of memory: a whole new regime of information will have to be constructed, and quickly, completely transforming old memory and archiving systems. If this shift does not take place, our societies will suffer irremediable damage in their collective social memory.