이 글은 지난 12년 간의 기록관리의 역사에 대한 국내 연구 동향을 분석하여 그간의 연구동향과 앞으로의 연구 방향을 제시하려는 목적으로 수행되었다. 이 연구에서는 기록관리분야의 「한국기록관리학회지」와 「기록학연구」 2종과 기록관리 관련분야 6종의 학술지에 실린 31편의 논문을 선정하였다. 정량적 분석에서는 31편의 논문목록을 작성하고, 분야별․연도별 논문현황을 살펴보았으며, 연구자별 현황에서는 연구당 저자수, 논문편수별 연구자, 연구자의 소속기관 및 소속기관의 유형을 밝혔다. 내용분석에서는 먼저 기록관리의 역사는 일반사, 국내 역사, 국외 역사의 세 분야로 나누고, 각 분야를 세분하여 국내 역사는 삼국시대 -백제-, 고려시대, 조선시대, 일제강점기, 대한민국정부수립 이후, 공공기록관리법 제정 이후의 시대별로 나누었으며, 국외 역사는 아시아, 북미, 유럽, 러시아의 지역별로 나누어 살펴보았다. 향후 기록관리의 역사 분야의 미래 발전을 위해 이론과 실무의 새로운 연구 방향을 위해 몇 가지 제안을 하였다.
This study aims at reviewing the research trends of records and archives management history published during the past 12 years, analyzing issues, and suggesting future tasks in related research areas. It starts with categorizing research areas of records and archives management history in archival sciences. All 31 articles have been selected from the 2 journals on archival science and 6 journals on related research areas. In quantitative measurement, the paper draws up 31 kinds of article bibliographies and looks at the current status of subject areas by year and author. In content analysis, selected articles are categorized into 3 subject areas, that is, general history, domestic history, and foreign history. For each subject area, research trends of the historical and regional studies are analyzed. This study concludes with emphasis on a new research direction between practice and points out that academic theory should be required for the future development in records and archives management history.
This study investigates the current preservation and management of four records and documentary heritage in Korea that is in the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. The study analyzes their problems and corresponding solutions in digitizing those world records heritages. This study also reviews additional four documentary books in Korea that are in the wish list to add to UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. This study is organized as the following: Chapter 2 examines the value and meanings of world records and documentary heritage in Korea. The registry requirements and procedures of UNESCO's Memory of the World Register are examined. The currently registered records of Korea include Hunmin-Chongum, the Annals of the Choson Dynasty, the Diaries of the Royal Secretariat (Seungjeongwon Ilgi), and Buljo- Jikji-Simche-Yojeol (vol. Ⅱ). These records heritage's worth and significance are carefully analyzed. For example, Hunmin-Chongum(「訓民正音」) is consisted of unique and systematic letters. Letters were delicately explained with examples in its original manual at the time of letter's creation, which is an unparalleled case in the world documentary history. The Annals of the Choson Dynasty(「朝鮮王朝實錄」) are the most comprehensive historic documents that contain the longest period of time in history. Their truthfulness and reliability in describing history give credits to the annals. The Royal Secretariat Diary (called Seungjeongwon-Ilgi(「承政院日記」)) is the most voluminous primary resources in history, superior to the Annals of Choson Dynasty and Twenty Five Histories in China. Jikji(「直指」) is the oldest existing book published by movable metal print sets in the world. It evidences the beginning of metal printing in the world printing history and is worthy of being as world heritage. The review of the four registered records confirms that they are valuable world documentary heritage that transfers culture of mankind to next generations and should be preserved carefully and safely without deterioration or loss. Chapter 3 investigates the current status of preservation and management of three repositories that store the four registered records in Korea. The repositories include Kyujanggak Archives in Seoul National University, Pusan Records and Information Center of National Records and Archives Service, and Gansong Art Museum. The quality of their preservation and management are excellent in all of three institutions by the following aspects: 1) detailed security measures are close to perfection 2) archiving practices are very careful by using a special stack room in steady temperature and humidity and depositing it in stack or archival box made of paulownia tree and 3) fire prevention, lighting, and fumigation are thoroughly prepared. Chapter 4 summarizes the status quo of digitization projects of records heritage in Korea. The most important issue related to digitization and database construction on Korean records heritage is likely to set up the standardization of digitization processes and facilities. It is urgently necessary to develop comprehensive standard systems for digitization. Two institutions are closely interested in these tasks: 1) the National Records and Archives Service experienced in developing government records management systems; and 2) the Cultural Heritage Administration interested in digitization of Korean old documents. In collaboration of these two institutions, a new standard system will be designed for digitizing records heritage on Korean Studies. Chapter 5 deals with additional Korean records heritage in the wish list for UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, including: 1) Wooden Printing Blocks(經板) of Koryo-Taejangkyong(高麗大藏經) in Haein Temple(海印寺); 2) Dongui-Bogam(「東醫寶鑑」) 3) Samguk-Yusa(「三國遺事」) and 4) Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong(「無垢淨光大다羅尼經」). Their world value and importance are examined as followings. Wooden Printing Blocks of Koryo-Taejangkyong in Haein Temple is the worldly oldest wooden printing block of cannon of Buddhism that still exist and was created over 750 years ago. It needs a special conservation treatment to disinfect germs residing in surface and inside of wooden plates. Otherwise, it may be damaged seriously. For its effective conservation and preservation, we hope that UNESCO and Government will schedule special care and budget and join the list of Memory of the Word Register. Dongui-Bogam is the most comprehensive and well-written medical book in the Korean history, summarizing all medical books in Korea and China from the Ancient Times through the early 17th century and concentrating on Korean herb medicine and prescriptions. It is proved as the best clinical guidebook in the 17th century for doctors and practitioners to easily use. The book was also published in China and Japan in the 18th century and greatly influenced the development of practical clinic and medical research in Asia at that time. This is why Dongui Bogam is in the wish list to register to the Memory of the World. Samguk-Yusa is evaluated as one of the most comprehensive history books and treasure sources in Korea, which illustrates foundations of Korean people and covers histories and cultures of ancient Korean peninsula and nearby countries. The book contains the oldest fixed form verse, called Hyang-Ka(鄕歌), and became the origin of Korean literature. In particular, the section of Gi-ee(紀異篇) describes the historical processes of dynasty transition from the first dynasty Gochosun(古朝鮮) to Goguryeo(高句麗) and illustrates the identity of Korean people from its historical origin. This book is worthy of adding to the Memory of the World Register. Mugujeonggwangdaedaranigyeong is the oldest book printed by wooden type plates, and it is estimated to print in between 706 and 751. It contains several reasons and evidence to be worthy of adding to the list of the Memory of the World. It is the greatest documentary heritage that represents the first wooden printing book that still exists in the world as well as illustrates the history of wooden printing in Korea.
기록학에서 집단 기억, 사회적 기억에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있으나, 아직 그 이론적 배경을 고찰한 연구는 많지 않다. 기억이 가지는 포괄성이 기록이 가지는 제한된 역사기술을 보완할 수 있다는 점에서 서구의 많은 학자들은 아키비스트가 문자화된 기록뿐만 아니라 도처에 만연해 있는 기억을 수집해야 한다고 주장한다. 아키비스트의 사회적 역할에는 공유되고 전승되는 기억을 통해 한 시대를 살고 있는 사람들의 모습을 재구성해야 함이 포함된다. 기억이 가지는 사회적 특성은 주류문화 위주 기록문화의 한계성에 도전하고, 비주류문화, 비기록문화의 역사를 포함하고 전승하도록 한다. 이러한 기억의 담론에서 아키비스트는 기록관에 수집하고 보존할 역사의 내용이 문자화된 지배집단의 기록에만 한정할지, 소외받고 배제되는 사회집단을 포함할 것인지 결정하는 역사의 중요한 권력자다. 본 연구에서는 기억에 대한 이론적 배경을 고찰하고, 역사와 기록이 기억의 담론에서 어떻게 인식되고 설명되는지 살펴본다. 결론에 갈음하여, 기억의 담론에서 기록관과 아키비스트의 역할을 논의한다.
In archival discourse, social memory has been discussed for some time. Despite this, however, theoretical studies have not been prolific at all in the Korean archival community. Many Western scholars have argued that archivists should consider memory rather than records for archival preservation because the inclusiveness of the former will fill the gaps in the latter. Social memory that is shared and transmitted across generations in society would include the stories of marginalized groups of people who are often neglected in official documents. Archivists can reconstruct the diverse narratives of a variety of social groups based on social memory, and this would be their social responsibility. In this sense, it is archivists who exercise power regarding how history will be written in the future because they determine what would be preserved in archives: mainstream culture with official records or a broader spectrum of diverse stories of people in society. From this perspective, this paper intends to understand how memory is discussed in archival discourse and to review how archives and history are associated with memory in theories and practices.
본고의 목적은 1894년부터 1910년까지 한국과 일본 공문서관리시스템의 중층적․종속적 구조를 밝히는 것으로, 기록사료학적 관점에서 분석하고자 한다. 연구대상 시기는 일제가 한국의 기록관리제도를 장악하여 조선을 침탈해가던 시기로서 그 내용은 일본내각과 군부가 대륙침략전쟁을 위하여 한국에 구축한 인프라 관련 기록과 통감부 설치와 관련하여 결재된 원본문서이다．특히 일본제국이 청일전쟁․동학농민전쟁을 진압하기 위해 전주를 중심으로 한 전북지역에 전략적으로 구축한 인프라기록을 중심으로 검토하였다. 이를 위해 갑오개혁기와 통감부시기에 걸쳐 일본정부가 한국을 지배하기 위해 작성한 정책․예산․인사 결정 관련 상위레벨의 결재 원본 출처와 편성 실태를 밝히고, 한국 내각과 통감부가 작성한 하위레벨 공문서 실태를 분석하였다. 그 결과 본 논문에서는 이 시기 한국의 공문서관리제도는 일국사적 관점에서만 고찰해서는 안되며, 한․일간 수직적 연관구조 속에서 중층적이고 종속적인 시스템 속에서 파악해야 한다는 점을 제기하였다.
This paper aims to interrogate the layered and dependent structure of the modern and official document management in Korea and Japan from 1894 to 1910. The focus of its study is on documents related with the strategic infrastructure construction in Jeonbuk Province through an analysis from the perspective of historic archival studies. For this study, the chosen period was when Japanese imperialists were on their way to seize the Korean official archival system. As such, our objects are the documents connected with the institution of the Japanese resident-general system in Korea and its infrastructural constructions as part of Japan’s war plans of invading the continent. Among others, we examined the documents of the strategic infrastructure construction around Jeonju in Jeonbuk Province by Imperial Japan, in order to wage the Sino-Japanese War and subdue the Donghak Peasant Revolution. More specifically, we illuminate the sources and organization of the approval of the original documents in a higher level that is relevant to the determination of political, financial, and personnel matters, which were designed for the Japanese governmental rule over Korea from the era of the Gabo Reform to the period of the Japanese resident-generals, as well as analyze the actual states of the official documents ina lower level, which were drawn up by Korean government and the resident-general. Consequently, this paper suggests that official Korean archival system at this time must be understood under the context of a layered and dependent structure within the vertical connections between Korea and Japan, and not from the point of view of a national history.